This blog is part of a series that discusses findings from the Pakistan@100: Shaping the Future report, which identifies the changes necessary for Pakistan to become a strong upper middle-income country by the time it turns 100 years old in 2047.
. Every few years, the economy is faced with a balance of payments crisis as it tries to grow fast.
This is unlike many other successful peer countries that are growing at higher rates for a longer time.
The fundamental cause for these short-lived growth cycles in Pakistan is that these are propelled by private and government consumption, not by higher investment.
Resultantly, the country’s demand increases at a much higher pace than its supply of goods and services, prompting a need for higher imports which becomes unsustainable.
Successive governments have tried to notch up growth in this way, but all of them have ended with a balance of payments crisis.
, almost half of the South Asian average at 30 percent. This translates into inadequate infrastructure, lack of access to sufficient levels of energy and water, poor quality of schools and hospitals.
This low investment trap and declining labor productivity have reduced Pakistan’s growth potential.
The decline in the economy’s growth potential is particularly concerning because it suggests that the country will not be able to grow at higher rates required for job creation..
The foremost priority is that Pakistan must maintain macroeconomic stability. Persistent macroeconomic instability has discouraged savings and private investment in the country resulting in low-aggregate investment and fluctuating output levels.
It remains one of the key reasons for low foreign investment in Pakistan, as the country’s share in overall global investment flow is low and falling. Fiscal slippages and quasi-fixed exchange rate policy has caused significant damage to the economy.
Moreover, population growth rate needs to be brought down to reduce a high dependency ratio to improve savings. Pakistan’s savings rate of 13.6pc of GDP (2012-17 average) compares poorly with that of its neighboring countries.
It is not surprising, therefore, that nearly all of Pakistan’s high-growth periods have coincided with inflows of foreign savings (in the form of external loans, grants, and remittances).
Accordingly, whenever such inflows have dried up, economic growth slid back, as domestic savings and investments were never sufficient to sustain the momentum.
. Public investment is important as a policy instrument to crowd in private investment and augment human capital to increase labor productivity.
However, low tax revenues—a legacy of a suboptimal tax structure—leave limited space for public investments to provide public goods.
Current expenditures exhibit structural rigidities due to large debt-servicing costs, significant subsidies, and salaries and wages.
Pakistan also needs to redefine its tax policy and administration to raise more revenues and improve the investment environment. The inefficient and retrogressive tax regime has discouraged the business environment and investment in productive sectors. While some sectors are taxed beyond their share in GDP, others are not taxed or only lightly taxed, creating adverse incentives.
Property transactions are taxed at official valuations which are only a fraction of market value. This large wedge not only provides an opportunity for large returns but also acts as a haven for undocumented wealth. A substantial portion of investable funds is diverted into this sector at the expense of other important job-creating sectors.
Another example of how tax policy is creating disincentives for business is the design of the sales tax. A business operating in Pakistan must file sixty sales tax returns annually and must deal with five tax authorities. Effectively a bad tax design has divided Pakistan into four smaller markets.
. Foreign direct investment is still extremely low, even at a time when many of Pakistan’s peers are attracting large FDI inflows. This weak performance in attracting FDI is partly explained by Pakistan’s cumbersome investment climate.
Given the shortage of domestic savings, the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) opens an important avenue for foreign investment. Nonetheless, to reap full benefits of such investments, the country needs to improve its investment environment, reduce the burden on businesses by undertaking a regulatory guillotine to cut down on redundancy, and harmonize tax laws across the federation.
. But to achieve that goal, the country needs to take tough decisions now including regaining and maintaining macroeconomic stability, broadening its tax base and encouraging investments through tackling the structural and regulatory constraints.